Transportation: Throughout the history of the country, the nation had not witnessed a worse disaster for public transit systems, including buses, subway, and commuter rail, than when Sandy struck.  Utilities and governments along the East Coast attempted to head off long-term power failures Sandy might cause.  One person died from falling off his roof while attempting to fix a window shutter in the Lyford Cay area on New Providence. , Because of the exceptional damage and deaths caused by the storm in many countries, the name "Sandy" was later retired by the World Meteorological Organization, and will never be used again for a North Atlantic hurricane.  The actual waves reached about 20 feet (6.1 m) but were less damaging than expected.  Most schools, colleges and universities were closed October 29 while at least 509 out of 580 school districts were closed October 30.  Government weather forecasters said there was a 90% chance that the East Coast would be impacted by the storm.  More than 1,500 FEMA personnel were along the East Coast working to support disaster preparedness and response operations, including search and rescue, situational awareness, communications and logistical support.  President Obama signed emergency declarations on October 28 for several states expected to be impacted by Sandy, allowing them to request federal aid and make additional preparations in advance of the storm.  On October 28, Mayor of Harrisburg Linda D. Thompson declared a state of disaster emergency for the city to go into effect at 5 a.m. October 29. This contamination resulted in the shutting down of several drinking water facilities across many different states.  Meanwhile, Popular Science called it "an imaginary scare-term that exists exclusively for shock value". Early on October 26, Sandy moved through the Bahamas.  Flood warnings were issued in Chicago on October 29, where wave heights were expected to reach 18 to 23 feet (5.5 to 7.0 m) in Cook County and 25 feet (7.6 m) in northwest Indiana. Nearly 7,000 people spent the night in emergency shelters across the region. Early nicknames included "Snowicane Sandy" and "Snor'eastercane Sandy". Green Infrastructure: Hurricane Sandy's storm surge caused erosion of the beaches and dunes, island breaches, and overwash along the coast of New England down all the way to Florida. , Sandy developed from a tropical wave in the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, quickly strengthened, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Sandy six hours later.  There was widespread damage, particularly to Santiago de Cuba where 132,733 homes were damaged, of which 15,322 were destroyed and 43,426 lost their roof.  While moving ashore, the storm produced waves up to 29 feet (9 meters) and a 6-foot (2 meter) storm surge that caused extensive coastal flooding.  Due to the widespread power outages, numerous schools had to close, especially in St. Clair County and areas along Lake Huron north of Metro Detroit. The economic loss was attributed to the massive power outages, liquid fuel shortages, and a near shutdown of the region's transportation system.  By late October 23, it was modified to a tropical storm warning. , Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutter said the city would have no mass transit operations on any lines October 30.  Nearly 142,000 customers lost power in the state. , Michigan was impacted by a winter storm system coming in from the west, mixing with cold air streams from the Arctic and colliding with Hurricane Sandy.  While it was a Category 2 hurricane off the coast of the Northeastern United States, the storm became the largest Atlantic hurricane on record (as measured by diameter, with tropical-storm-force winds spanning 1,150 miles (1,850 km)). Government officials shut down schools, government buildings, and the airport in Kingston on the day prior to the arrival of Sandy.  In the month following Sandy, a resurgence of cholera linked to the storm killed at least 44 people and infected more than 5,000 others. In Puerto Rico, one man was swept away by a swollen river.  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